-calcemia. refers to calcium ion concentration in blood plasma (e.g. hypocalcemic tetany)

endogenous. originating or produced within the body

enuresis. involuntary or uncontrolled urination

exogenous. originating or produced outside of the body

-glycemia. refers to glucose concentration in blood (e.g. hypoglycemia, low blood glucose)

hyperosmotic. greater osmotic activity or more concentrated than blood plasma and interstitial fluid

hypo-osmotic. smaller osmotic activity or less concentrated than blood plasma and interstitial fluid

isosmotic (or iso-omotic). same osmotic activity as blood plasma and interstitial fluid

-kalemia. refers to potassium ion concentration in blood plasma (e.g. hyperkalemia, high blood potassium)

micturition. to urinate

micturition reflex. reflex urination. Initiated by stimulation of stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors in the bladder wall, which send action potentials to the spinal cord, and excite motor neurons innevating bladder wall muscles; when the muscle contract, urine is expelled.

-natremia. refers to sodium ion concentration in blood plasma

nocternal enuresis. bed wetting

reabsorption. transport from the nephron tubular lumen into the peritubular capillary

secretion. transport from the peritubular capillary into the nephron tubular lumen

tubular transport maximum (Tm). the maximum rate at which a substance can be transported between the tubular lumen and the peritubular capillary

ultrafiltreate. filtered fluid that contains all substances in the source fluid and at the same concentrations except for certain (usually larger or highly charged) particles

-uria. referes to urine composition or volume (e.g. glucosuria, presence of glucose in the urine)